Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Organisational Theory Essay Example for Free

Authoritative Theory Essay Apple is a worldwide mammoth whose achievement has been based on re-appropriating to a scope of different associations situated over the world. By what means can distinctive hierarchical hypothesis points of view help us in procuring diverse comprehension of Apple, its authoritative system and impact? In this paper you should use at any rate two points of view to break down Apple. Presentation In this upset world, changes happen quickly, be it in a sorted out or disrupted way (Henry Veltmeyer 2008). Associations are managing progressively complex frameworks and ideas. The investigation of authoritative speculations progressively gains significance since it includes the investigation of conceptual issues identifying with associations. It is fundamental as it benefits in breaking down and finding new implications to life both inside and outside the association (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). Apple’s creative story has been told and retold surrounding us. Its prosperity is to a great extent because of the late prime supporter, Steven Paul Jobs. With the death of Steve Jobs, Apple Inc is as yet thriving and as of now the most appreciated organization is the world (Fortune 2012). In hierarchical hypothesis, the achievement of Apple can be broke down into two points of view that differ incredibly; Modernist and Post-Modernist. The innovator ascribes Apple’s accomplishment to its novel association diagram and ‘knowledge is power’ association culture. Post-pioneer offer credits to Apple’s affirmation of talks and condition impacts identified with the association. Apple’s capacity to produce incredible amounts of items to satisfy the need and its reliable commitment with partners demonstrated the endeavors to be serious in the business. It is additionally a critical commitment to its prosperity. In any case, Apple’s method of making progress is a reason for banter because of its obsessive relationship with its partners. This paper expects to give an investigation into Apple’s Inc association; points of view of its partners and how the relationship towards its condition. The setting of the exposition will be isolated into two sections. Section An and B. Section A will address the meta-hypothetical suspicions of innovator and post-pioneer and how it identifies with organisation’s force, control and the earth. Part B will apply the suspicions and definitions to a limited extent A to break down innovation and postmodernism viewpoints on Apple. The attention will be on the manners in which that Apple exhibits force and how it impacts its condition and system which incorporates partners. Section A Metaphysics Metaphysics is characterized as the science or investigation of the real world (McAuley, Duberley Johnson 2007). It tries to explain what are the truth and the wonders we take to establish parts of the truth. Modernist’s ontological supposition that is portrayed as objectivism. It guarantees that social world and the truth is all together and that the fact of the matter is in a normal, organized way paying little heed as far as anyone is concerned (Boisot Mckelvey 2010). They see the existent of time is genuine paying little heed to the human’s mindfulness in view of people create theory and recommendations that demonstrated the truth of time. Then again, there is no away from on the ontological presumption of postmodernism. It is created in response of innovation position (Moore 2001). Postmodernist rejects and challenge the pioneer view and contend that time is ‘created’ through the talks of human since it gives importance and affirmation to people. Epistemology Epistemology is the investigation of the measures we set and how it legitimizes the conviction. It looks to explain how creatures make information to guarantee the world is legitimized. Innovator takes a positive purpose of points of view in survey the world in scan for information. Modernist’s epistemological supposition that is positivism, whereby discerning theories and practices of information will characterize reality and comprehend nature(Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). They sees ‘truths’ to be the revelation of the human’s exact theory and conceptualization to be dissected with the truth found in target world. Regardless, postmodernism rejects modernism’s thought of ‘truths’. It depicts reality as a hallucinations made by dialects and talks. It alludes to the abstract methods by which people sort out what they see. Talks are contemplations, composed or spoken or any mediums that develop a specific marvel, they are in a social and politically etymological system that impacts people understanding and comprehension of it (Crowther Green 2004). Rather, postmodernist intends to give an elective clarification/which means using talks. System impact on Organization Innovator Proceeding from the epistemology of innovation, it sees worry of information implies seeing all part of an association capacities. Methods of unraveling and dissecting association issues are created to all the more likely oversee and make gainfulness for the organization. Innovation and the methodological term, positivism, support the structures and episteme authenticity in this ‘noisy’ world. Post-pioneer Post-present day approach lies in ‘anti-positivism’, where language, talk and deconstruction are the primary impacts. Language can have distinctive importance and diverse noteworthiness when joined with different words (Moore 2001). The development that could be produce may shift amazingly in various conditions. Postmodernists consider this thought the Ludwig Wittgenstein’s idea of language games. Information makes and repeats talk that activity control and twist the truth that innovator expect. The idea of talk develops in ‘poststructuralist semantics as a methods for examining the aggregate procedure that builds and shapes language in use.’ Deconstruction ‘is a method of perusing and rehashing writings utilizing various settings so as to uncover their essential dangers and different interpretations.’ Association Power and Control Associations require power. Force in associations needs to work on the wonders of changing association rehearses and changing the manners by which association scholar have guessed the practices (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). Max Weber recommended that force is settling on choices as indicated by arranged outcomes where the social on-screen character gets the chance to choose the methods and closures of activity. Political specialist, Robert Dahl further dwells the relationship of the on-screen character by recommending that on-screen characters might be people or aggregate which prompts various instruments of intensity (Clegg, Courpasson Phillips 2006). ‘A’ can get ‘B’ to accomplish something that ‘B’ would not in any case do, much the same as the theoretical philosophy of billiard where the noteworthy lies more on the technique and gamesmanship behind the sign instead of conclusive situation of the balls. Anthony Giddens, extended Weber’s meaning of intensity expressing that force includes a lot of capacities that mediate a given arrangement of occasions by 2 unmistakable sorts of assets; allocative and definitive. In pioneer associations, Weber contended, formal sanity would be best settled and where strength will be generally finished. Innovation sees power in associations as a structure to arrange exercises in the quest for association objectives. It tries to force request on the tumult and to coordinate the contending interest and plans with the goal that a solitary, agreeable vision and a reliable arrangement of premises oversee the lead of members. The instrument of intensity apparently resolves clashes through exchange and amplify control of tasks. Innovator sees controlling people in association important on the grounds that representative has personal circumstance that will upset association intrigue. The pioneer control speculations of organization, family and office will be applied on Apple. Interestingly, Postmodernism scholar contends that bound together objectives can emerge just when predominant entertainers delegitimize elective translations and rationalities. It underscores the focal job of intensity in molding social foundations. The association of intensity and information is thought to be indistinguishable and in this way information loses a feeling of honesty and lack of bias (Scott 2003). Postmodernist demand that the objective conventional structure must be set nearby different casual frameworks that speak to endeavors to oppose any single vision of request (Hassard 1995). Foucault’s speculations brought up that opposition towards control is unavoidable as force originates from all over. Any type of opposition will simply fortify them (Clegg et al. 2006). It sees power as a multi-dimensional on the grounds that it resembles a system that scattered all through social, political and authoritative world. Association Environment and Network Hierarchical condition is anything dwelling beyond association that may affect upon the association. The association needs to adjust well to its condition and the other way around for the relationship to work in a perfect possibility (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). Pioneer accepts there is limit among association and the outer condition. Condition relates the variables, for example, between hierarchical system and its partners. Systems are characterized as partners, customers, ecological gatherings, contenders, etc. Pioneer scholar expect that there are sources of info and yields between the association and condition. The earth engages and compels an association; it impacts upon hierarchical objectives and should be overseen. Partner hypothesis alludes to any on-screen character that is imperative for the endurance or achievement of the association, and due to the limit, different components doesn't concern. As the center is clarifying how natural impact works, innovator specialists created hypotheses to examine the enviro

Saturday, August 22, 2020

NaOH Standardization and Titration of an Unknown Organic Acid Essay Example for Free

NaOH Standardization and Titration of an Unknown Organic Acid Essay NaOH Standardization and Titration of an Unknown Organic Acid Overview: Methods for including the quantity of atoms in an example is a significant accentuation of research center work. In this investigation we will utilize the strategy for titration to check the quantity of corrosive particles in an answer. Estimating mass is a generally simple method to do in the lab (albeit an equalization is costly). Checking the quantity of particles requires more exertion. Sub-atomic checking should be possible by setting an obscure measure of a substance equivalent to a known measure of substance. In the titration we will act in lab this week, you will add OH particles to arrangement until they are identical to the quantity of H+ particles in arrangement. Where this mole equivalency happens is known as the proportionality point. A marker in the arrangement will change shading to flag that the identicalness has been reached (really, the pointer reacts to the scarcest abundance of OH particles). The shading change in a titration is known as the endpoint. At the equality purpose of the titration, the moles of OH (base) are proportionate to the moles of H+ (corrosive) in the example. The moles of OH added to the arrangement from a buret are determined from the grouping of the base (MOH) and the volume of base (VOH) included, as: V (L) n (mol) Lmol MOH OH The lab objective is to decide the molar mass of an obscure monoprotic corrosive. The grams of corrosive are resolved from gauging the corrosive and the moles are resolved from the titration with NaOH. Since it is a monoprotic corrosive, the moles of corrosive are equivalent to the moles of OH at the endpoint of the titration. n (mol) n (mol) OH corrosive Standardization of NaOH: Last week in lab you arranged a NaOH arrangement with an inexact centralization of 0.1 M. The principal task is to decide the specific centralization of that arrangement by titrating the NaOH against a known measure of corrosive. The known measure of corrosive you will utilize originates from dissolving the strong corrosive potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP, FW = 204.2212 g/mol) in 25 mL of H2O. KHP is an enormous natural particle, yet can be seen basically as a monoprotic corrosive. The titration of the KHP with NaOH can be express by the compound response: OH (aq) + KHP(aq) H2O + KP (aq) To normalize (decide the grouping of) your NaOH arrangement Lmol you will quantify volume of NaOH required to arrive at the titration endpoint. At the equality point the moles of NaOH are proportional to the moles of KHP titrated. n (mol) n (mol) NaOH KHP .Before you titrate a KHP test, start with a training titration of 25 mL of a 0.1 M HCl arrangement with your NaOH. Aâ practice titration is a decent method to start any titration. It tells you the inexact centralization of your NaOH arrangement and the conduct of the marker at the endpoint. Set up a buret with your NaOH arrangement. Review how you clean the buret first with DI water and afterward wash the buret with around 10 mL of your NaOH arrangement. Channel the flush NaOH into an enormous waste measuring glass at your lab seat. At last, fill your buret with NaOH,. Make certain to fill the tip of the buret before you use it and ensure there are no air pockets in the tip. With your graduated chamber measure roughly 25 mL of 0.1M HCl. Record the specific volume you use. Add the HCl to an erlenmyer jar and include three drops of phenolphthalein pointer. Titrate the corrosive arrangement with the NaOH. Spot the erlenmyer carafe under the buret on a white piece of paper (or towel). Make sure to make an underlying volume perusing before you start. You should require about a similar volume of base as you have corrosive for this titration, on the grounds that the molarities of each are comparative. You can titrate rapidly from the outset, yet as you get close to the endpoint moderate your titrating. Limited quantities of titrant can be included by rapidly turning the buret stopcock one upheaval as you approach the end point. Much littler amounts of a solitary drop can be included as you approach the end point. Recollect this is just practice. Wear t invest a great deal of energy in this progression. After you have arrived at the endpoint, the lightest pink shading that will persevere for 20 seconds, demonstrate this answer for your TA. Anything past light pink demonstrates an answer with overabundance OH and you will be over including the moles of corrosive in arrangement. After this training titration, top off your buret, dump your titrated arrangement down the channel, and flush your dish sets with DI water. Normalization of NaOH with KHP: Prepare an answer with a known number of moles of corrosive, by weighing precisely, roughly 0.5 grams of the strong corrosive KHP in a gauge vessel. (Try not to add KHP to the gauge vessel while on the parity!) Add the gauged corrosive to an enormous erlenmyer cup. In the event that any of the KHP stays on the gauge pontoon utilize your spurt container to flush the entirety of the KHP into the erlenmyer flagon. Break down the corrosive in roughly 30 mL of water the specific sum doesn't make a difference. Include four drops of phenolphthalein pointer. Titrate the KHP corrosive arrangement with the NaOH. Spot the erlenmyer jar under the buret on a white piece of paper (or towel). Make sure to make an underlying volume perusing before you start. If not the entirety of the KHP is broken up, you can even now start the titration. Simply ensure that all the KHP is broken down before you arrive at the titration endpoint. The main titration is consistently the most troublesome in light of the fact that you don't have the foggiest idea how cautiously you have to include the titrant. For this situation, you ought to have the option to include 15 mL of NaOH without passing the endpoint. As you are including your underlying measures of NaOH,notice the pink shade of the marker directly as the NaOH enters the arrangement. As the pink shading continues, slow the titration down. Try not to release the buret beneath 50 mL during the titration. On the off chance that you draw near to 50 mL, stop the titration, record the volume of the buret and afterward top off the buret and keep on titrating. The end purpose of the titration happens when the arrangement is the lightest pink shading that will endure for 20 seconds. All things considered, you will overshoot the endpoint on your first attempt. Wear t let this concern you. Record the last volume on the buret. At the equality point, you have included the specific number of moles of OH as there were moles of corrosive at first. The moles of corrosive (monoprotic) you can decide from the mass of the corrosive and its molar mass (KHP = 204.2212 g/mol). Before you proceed, ascertain the rough convergence of your NaOH arrangement. Play out a second titration of KHP with NaOH. Gauge and break up another 0.5 g test of KHP and disintegrate it in a clean erlenmyer jar. The jar can be wet inside. For what reason can the Erlenmyer flagon be wet when test is included, however the buret must be painstakingly washed with the arrangement that will in the end be apportioned? Top off your buret with NaOH and titrate the new KHP test to its pink endpoint. Remember to make an intial buret perusing, include pointer and not go past 50 mL on the buret. After the titration, ascertain the fixation (molarity) of your NaOH arrangement. Titrate a third KHP test with the aim of getting a third estimation of your NaOH arrangement focus. In the wake of tititrating the third example, compute the NaOH focus and look at all three counts of the NaOH fixations. On the off chance that the three estimations of the fixation are the equivalent to inside 0.02 M, you may presume that the grouping of your NaOH is the normal of these three estimations. On the off chance that you have achieved this accuracy in your normalization of NaOH, proceed to the titration on an obscure corrosive. On the off chance that any of the deliberate NaOH fixations are more than 0.02 M, you ought to play out a fourth normalization titration, utilizing another 0.5 g test of KHP. Subsequent to inspecting the four convergence of NaOH, decide whether any one fixation is suspect as either excessively huge or excessively little. Youâ can do this by assessment. In any case, there are factual tests (Student T-tests) that will compute if an information point is an exception. On the off chance that we ever group show this course with Math140 we will utilize the understudy T-test now. For the present, in the event that three fixations are inside 0.02 M, at that point normal these three focuses as the NaOH fixation. On the off chance that you despite everything wear t include three estimations inside 0.02 M of one another, play out a fifth normalization with another example of KHP. Get the NaOH focus from the fifth titration and normal each of the five estimations to acquire a normal NaOH concentration.Titration of an Unknown Acid to Determine Molar Mass: The units of molar mass are g/mol. This escalated property is the proportion of two broad properties, as is appeared in the figure underneath. To decide the molar mass of your obscure corrosive, you will play out the titration of the obscure corrosive similarly you played out the titration of KHP. Acquire from your TA an obscure corrosive example vial. Compose your obscure number in your scratch pad. This example vial contains two examples of your obscure corrosive. Gauge the vial and every one of its substance. Add half of the corrosive to a clean erlenmyer flagon. Recheck the example vial to decide how much corrosive you will titrate in Trial # 1. Note: There are just two examples of your obscure accessible. Exercise alert while titrating. Treating the obscure corrosive similarly as the KHP test, titrate to the endpoint and figure the moles of NaOH require to arrive at the endpoint. From the mass and mole estimations of the obscure corrosive, decide the molar mass of the obscure corrosive. Clean your dish sets and rehash the titrtation on the second example of obscure corrosive. To report the molar mass of the corrosive, take a normal of the two molar mass estimations. Report the vulnerability as half of the distinction between the two mass estimations (ex. on the off chance that Trial # 1 gives a mass of 240 g/mol and Tiral # 2 gives 256 g/mol the normal ought to be accounted for as 248 8 g/mol). Before you leave the lab, clean your buret with refined water at that point place it topsy turvy in the buret brace with the stopcock open

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

10 Scams That Target the Elderly

10 Scams That Target the Elderly 10 Scams That Target the Elderly 10 Scams That Target the ElderlyDont let yourself or anyone you love get taken in by all the scammers and con artists out there that just love targeting the elderly.It’s Older Americans Month. That’s why we’re drawing attention to different kinds of financial problems that the elderly often face. Recently, we published an article concerning financial elder abuse: specifically, how to spot it and how to stop it.Because the elderly tend to need assistance in managing their finances, they’re especially vulnerable to being taken advantage of. For this post, we spoke to the experts to find out the most common scams that target the elderly so you can be on the lookout and protect yourself and those you love.1. The grandkid scam.Many grandparents would do anything for their grandkids, whether it’s slipping them an extra cookie behind their parent’s back or freeing them from a foreign prison. Scammers are aware of this and won’t hesitate to try and take advantage of it.“I us ed to work in a bank and was trained on the newest scams so I could help prevent customers, primarily elderly customers, from falling victim to these scams,” recounted Ian Dolan, president of Crank 11 Marketing. “One of the biggest ones that is still prevalent and targets the elderly involves a phone call with the scammer pretending to be the grandchild of the elderly victim.“Basically, the scammers call and say ‘Grandma/Grandpa, its your grandson. Im down in Mexico and am in jail. I need you to send me a money order for $1,000 so I can get out. I lost all of my debit cards and have no way to pay.’“They then wait for the victim to suggest a name, then the scammer says they are that person. Then the scammer typically tells the victim to not tell anyone because its embarrassing or they can get in trouble with their job or school. They do this to try to prevent the victim from telling anyone else who may know about this scam or know that their grandson with that name is not in Mexico.“I have seen several elderly people come into the bank to purchase a money order. We are trained to ask nosy questions if this is a customer we dont know or recognize that this is not common for a familiar customer. I have stopped several elderly people from falling victim to this scam and typically convinced them to reach out to the named grandchild or their own child to verify their location before they make the money order or cash withdrawal. One woman was fully convinced that the voice was her grandson and we had to give her the cash, and she sent money via Western Union.“To avoid this scam, simply reach out to any family members to verify this story. It is far more likely that someone is trying to scam you than the likelihood of your grandchild being in prison. If you are unsure, try calling back, and ask a question, such as ‘What is my dogs name?.’ This type of open-ended question will allow you to verify that the scammer is indeed not your grandchild.”2. Website scams.Most scams these days have some sort of online component. And the elderly, as a group, tend to be less capable online.“I find that the most pernicious scams that affect my clients are those that are out in the open,” explained personal injury attorney Brad Biren. “Many baby boomers want to demonstrate that they are capable and tech-savvy, so they will try and do things online by themselves. This demographic will go to Google and then type in the name of the site they want to go to rather than the actual URL. The first links that populate their results are usually not the company they actually want to engage with online.“For example, they may want to go to Citibank. Rather than typing in, they will just type in the name citibank into the Google browser. They then erroneously click on one of the first search results and they are taken to a nefarious site which was not their intended destination. I usually get involved trying to fix their errors.â €3. Email scams.Even if an elderly person knows not to go to suspicious sites, scammers may still reach out to them directly.“There are many cyber threats to be aware of in today’s digital age, but here I’ll aim to discuss one of the most frequent culpritsâ€"email,” warned Brian Gill, co-founder of Gillware Data Recovery (@gwdatarecovery). “Fraudulent emails come in all shapes and sizes, but I’d like to share some tips to help an elderly person, or anyone for that matter, easily defend against them.“If you receive an email where the ‘To’ field is left blank, it’s a clear signal that it didn’t come from the perceived sender. When an email from a company has spelling errors or bad grammar, it should be another warning sign. Large companies have copywriters and editors who make sure email communications are grammatically correct. Also, if the email begins with ‘Hello’ but doesn’t actually state your name, that’s another red flag.“When checking your emai l, stay suspicious and on alert. Often times a fraudulent email will try to scare you by saying something was stolen or that you’ve won a prize. Rather than clicking on the links from your email, just go directly to the actual website and sign in how you normally would. You should also have some form of internet security installed. Norton AntiVirus or McAfee SiteAdvisor are two helpful tools that can prevent disaster in the event you do open a malicious email.”4. Home scams.Many elderly people choose to move to warmer states to spend their retirement. There’s a reason why we have a trope about Florida as a retirement home state (even though it might not be the best state to retire to). That means a retiree may be looking to sell their house. And that’s where the scammers come in.“Elderly homeowners who are trying to sell their house need to be aware of potential ‘We Buy Houses’ scams,” urged Shawn Breyer, owner of Breyer Home Buyers. “Real estate investors do not h ave to obtain a license to practice and are not held to any ethical standards. If you come across the wrong investment company, you could be exposed to high-pressure tactics and super low offers.“We met a lady who owed $139,000 that sold her house to an investor for $53,000. She thought that she was being offered $153,000, not $53,000. Since it was a binding contract, and per the mortgage verbiage, she had to come out of pocket $86,000 to pay off the remaining loan.“Its important that a family member help the elderly when selling their house to make sure that you are dealing with a reputable company. A good way to initially verify their credibility is to read their Google Reviews. These are real people giving real feedback about a company.”5. Phone scams.Not every “scam” is necessarily illegal. Many businesses will try to take advantage of their customers in every way they can and, as we’ve said, the elderly make easier targets.“It is more than just individual bad acto rs that are scamming the elderly,” warned Jacqueline Hugo, CTO of Hugomatica. “With the complexity of cell phone plans, especially data plans, the elderly are at a disadvantage. They often do not understand the difference between using WiFi (typically free) and cellular data (which can have a per MB charge, if they dont have an unlimited plan). And they can easily end up paying $200 a month for extra cell data usage.“So they probably should upgrade to an unlimited plan if they are going over their domestic cellular data allotment on a regular basis. And they should try to use WiFi whenever possible.“Additionally, for international travel, most carriers offer a $10 per day plan that covers a large number of countries. However, the elderly may not understand that there will be extra charges.”6. Medicare scams.Pretending that you’re working for the government is a tried and true scammer tactic. That tactic is often applied against the elderly.“Scammers targeting older adu lts often use Medicare as an opportunity to commit fraud,” advised Kathryn Casna, a Medicare specialist from (@eligibilitycom). “Some scammers pose as officials from the Medicare program, insisting that people give them personal information such as a Social Security number or birth date over the phone. The goal here is identity theft.“Although Medicare is sending out new Medicare cards that dont contain the beneficiarys Social Security number, scammers are using this as an opportunity for identity theft. These criminals ask for personal information and threaten to add fees or stop coverage. They say they need this information in order to send out a new Medicare card, so if a beneficiary Googled whether they should be getting a new Medicare card, the call seems legitimate.“The recent $1.2 billion fraud in which seemingly legitimate companies prescribed unnecessary medical equipment is an example of another type of scam. These (and many other) scams require vic tims to give their personal information to impersonators over the phone. Since Medicare never calls beneficiaries to ask for such information, the easiest way to avoid these scams is to simply hang up.“If youre concerned about your Medicare coverage in any way, call Medicare yourself (so you know youre reaching official government employees) and check on it. Finally, report all suspected scams to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).”7. IRS scams.While pretending you’re working for Medicare is an effective means to scam the elderly, pretending you’re working for the IRS might have an even greater impact. After all, the IRS can send you to jail, and no one, including the elderly, wants to hang out in jail.“In recent years, there has been a significant increase in tax scams targeting thousands of Americans and costing them millions of dollars,” explained David Cawley, CFO at Micah Fraim, CPA (@MFraim89). “From my experience, it seems that many of these scams are starting t o skew towards targeting the elderly. While social media scams are certainly on the rise, the ‘old-school’ scams via traditional means like mail, telephone, and email, are ever more increasing.“According to the FBI, telemarketing fraud is one of the mostâ€"if not the mostâ€"common ways the elderly are targeted. The most important piece of advice I can give to any taxpayer is that the IRS initiates most contact with taxpayers through regular mail via the United States Postal Service. What the IRS does not do is contact taxpayers by email, text message, or social media. Speaking specifically to seniors, it’s important to keep in mind that it’s very rare for the IRS to contact anyone via the phone. If you’re ever contacted through one of those mediums by someone representing themselves as the IRS, it’s most likely a scam.“In some circumstances, such as having an overdue tax bill or getting audited, the IRS may call or visit a taxpayer in person, but even then, taxpayers should have received several IRS notices through regular mail beforehand. Also, according to the IRS, over 70 percent of audits in 2017 were done via regular mail correspondence, so even if you do get audited it’s most likely to happen via regular mail and not in person.”8. Medication scams.Many elderly people need medication. Medication can be very expensive. The elderly struggle with the internet. These are all facts, and scammers are aware of them.“If you find an ad or website on the internet claiming to sell prescription drugs for very cheap, it is a scam,” warned Justin Lavelle, Chief Communications Director for (@BeenVerified). “Usually, they take your money and end up sending you fake or harmful drugs instead of true medications. For your safety, only accept prescriptions from your personal, trusted doctor.”9. Charity scams.Most people want to help others. Scammers want to help themselves by making you think you’re helping others.“Generally, this happens after some kind of natural disaster,” advised Lavelle. “You will get a phone call asking for donations to help the victims of the event. If you want to help, only donate to well-known charities and organizations. Do your research before you donate money to anyone you do not knowâ€"even it seems to be for a good cause.”10. Sweepstakes scams.Everyone likes winning money! Unfortunately, many sweepstakes are actually scamstakes.“This scam tells you that you have won a significant amount of money, but you need to pay a fee to receive it,” advised Lavelle. “Once you’ve sent your money, you get a check in the mail that will bounce after a few days. To keep this from happening to you, know that if you really win something, you never have to pay to get it. Another thing to keep in mind is that if you do not remember entering a contest, you probably did not. Always confirm the info before sending money to any kind of ‘contest.’”Whether you’re old or planning to be old one day, be sure to keep an eye out for these scams. You weren’t born yesterday, after all.  To learn more about how you and your loved ones can keep yourselves safe from scams and fraudsters, check out these other posts and articles from OppLoans:Expert Roundup: 13 Signs You’re Being Scammed5 Steps You Can Take to Prevent Identity TheftDating App Dangers: 7 Tips to Avoid Getting Scammed by a Fake RomanceHow to Tell if a “Business Opportunity” is Really a ScamDo you have a   personal finance question youd like us to answer? Let us know! You can find us  on  Facebook  and  Twitter.  |  InstagramContributorsBrad Biren is the newest addition to  Johnston Martineau, joining as a senior associate in the fall of 2017. He holds an undergraduate degree from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, and his law degree from the University of Iowa. His broad and varied experience with the law and work in the public sector includes assisting with prosecutions at the US Attorney ’s Office in Davenport, project management at the Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole, and nonprofit management throughout the United States.Shawn Breyer started Breyer Home Buyers with a mission to empower people to enjoy life by simplifying and solving their property issues. He and his wife flip 35+ homes in the metro Atlanta area every year.Kathryn Casna is a Medicare specialist from (@eligibilitycom).David Cawley is the Chief Financial Officer for  Micah Fraim, CPA (@MFraim89) and is a CPA licensed in the state of Virginia. He holds an MBA and Masters’ in Accounting and Finance. David and his firm specialize in business development and have worked with hundreds of entrepreneurs, helping advise them on how to attain the best results for their businesses.Ian Dolan is the President of the digital marketing agency Crank 11 and manages campaigns for local and national companies to increase lead generation results. He also makes it a priority in helping his community learn the newest strategies in digital marketing and serves on the Board of Directors for two marketing education non-profits.Brian Gill co-founded  Gillware Data Recovery  (@gwdatarecovery) and  Gillware Digital Forensics (@gwforensics), one of the worlds most successful data recovery companies and digital forensics labs. He currently serves as Chairman.As a Founder and Chief Technology officer for Hugomatica, Jacqueline Hugo is the lead technical designer for 6 apps that are currently available in the App Store. Her goal for Hugomatica is to create fun, useful apps for life and learning. Since all of the App code is built using Swift, the Hugomatica apps are robust, current and optimized. She utilizes the scrum agile software development framework throughout the process for product development. In that way, Hugomatica is able to adapt to the fast-changing market and take advantage of new ideas and inspiration on a regular basis.Justin Lavelle  is a Scams Prevention Exper t and the Chief Communications Officer of (@BeenVerified). BeenVerified is a leading source of online background checks and contact information. It helps people discover, understand and use public data in their everyday lives and can provide peace of mind by offering a fast, easy and affordable way to do background checks on potential dates. BeenVerified allows individuals to find more information about people, phone numbers, email addresses,  and property records.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Analysis Of The Motif Of Black Invisibility, By Michelle...

â€Å"Blackness†: An Invisible Disposition Explored Through Free Enterprise and Invisible Man As observed throughout history and various societies, the notion of a â€Å"racial hierarchy† proves to be a superficial design which ultimately assigns value to a group of people based solely upon their skin color. As a result, certain groups are promptly associated with influence and supremacy, while others are disregarded in their â€Å"inherent† inferiority. Michelle Cliff’s Free Enterprise and Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man approach this paradigm by facilitating their readers’ understandings regarding the debilitating ostracism associated with the social construct of â€Å"blackness,† as well as the metaphorical societal invisibility that is suffered as a result. In Free Enterprise, Cliff’s implementation of the motif of black invisibility is prevalent throughout the depiction of a leper colony. In the literal sense, the colony serves the purpose of preventing those with leprosy, a disease which â€Å"flourishes among the darker races,† from infecting the rest of the general populace (Cliff 35). In the metaphorical sense, however, its existence in the work is meant to represent the estrangement and containment of marginalized people from the other, â€Å"superior† society. Through the eyes of Annie Christmas, the channel of the narrator’s observations, the â€Å"numericalized† lepers are described as a secreted and unknown people, â€Å"hidden away as she had hidden herself† (Cliff 42). In the colony, there is

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The French Revolution And The Enlightenment - 1601 Words

The Enlightenment was an extensive intellectual, philosophical, and cultural movement that spread throughout Europe, predominantly England, France and Germany during the 18th century. The Scientific Revolution, which began in the 16th century, gave way to a new and revolutionary way of thinking. It encouraged independent thought, the capacity to ask questions, and a progressive attitude. Additionally, the enlightenment arose during a time when there was absolute monarchy and an extremely powerful church. Political, philosophical, cultural, and religious ideas were in the need of reform. The French Revolution was arguably an effect of the growing ideas of the enlightenment. People within France finally had enough of absolute monarchy and wanted reform. Philosophers and thinkers were crucial to the progress of the enlightenment. Thinkers such as Immanuel Kant, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Locke, and Adam Smith were prominent figures of the enlightenment. They questioned religion, promot ed secularism, and freedom. Most believed that the government was to be an extension of the people and should not be totalitarian. Locke and Rousseau were focused on protecting the people’s rights. Adam Smith focused on the economic aspects and promoted a free economy without restrictions from the all powerful monarchy. He is the founder of modern economics. Immanuel Kant focused on the problem with government and how the absolute monarchy had been detrimental to the people. He argued that theShow MoreRelatedThe French Revolution And The Enlightenment1471 Words   |  6 Pageshands of the people. Through bloodshed, the radical actions of the French Revolution sparked by philosophies of Enlightenment, will impact the future. Historical figures such as Robespierre heading the Great Assembly will drive change in culture through the revolution, in hopes of achieving enlightened societies. The 18th century marks the beginning of modern history. The French revolution playing a rol e in furthering Enlightenment, will led to a chain of events that will change the course of theRead MoreEnlightenment and the French Revolution1227 Words   |  5 PagesName Subject Professor Date Enlightenment Influence on Political, Social and Cultural Policies of French Revolutionary Period. The age of enlightenment led by influential intellectuals during the 18th century Europe greatly inspired the French citizens, especially the peasants, leading to the revolutionary period culminating from 1789 to 1799. The enlightenment is hailed as the foundation of today’s western political and intellectual culture.1 Growth of liberal democracies and democraciesRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Enlightenment1708 Words   |  7 PagesEnlightenment in Europe was a period in which ideas were legitimately from one country to another. It is also known as civilization time where traditional authority was put to the question while embracing the notion of humanity to improve human change. The French revolution was directly in motivation by Enlightenment ideals which marked a peak of its influence and a beginning of its fall. The Enlightenment s imperative of the seventeenth-century forerunners incorporated the Englishmen Francis BaconRead MoreEnlightenment During The French Revolution1423 Words   |  6 Pages Enlightenment during The French Revolution: Two of the Greatest Eras Working Together Without Knowing Molly Dauk Honors World History Mrs. Bartosik May 5, 2017 The Enlightenment and the French Revolution, two of the most enriched periods of history, probably never to be left out of the history books. The French Revolution was influenced greatly by the Age of Reason. The Enlightenment period took place over about three-hundred years, whereas the French Revolution took place for onlyRead MoreImpact Of The Enlightenment And The French Revolution1015 Words   |  5 Pagesenemy, the Kingdom of Great Britain. There were two wars, The Revolutionay War, and The French Revolution. Both of these wars were influenced by the enlightenment, but what were the philosophies of each war, and what happened at the end of them? The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a period of time both the 13 British Colonies and the French used as inspiration in their Revolutions. The Americans, such as Thomas Jefferson drew inspiration from John Locke, who believedRead MoreImpact Of Enlightenment On The French Revolution878 Words   |  4 PagesI agree that the Enlightenment was force for positive change in society. The Enlightenment was one was the most important intellectual movements in History, as it dominated and influenced the way people thought in Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries. We will look at how it ultimately influenced the American and French Revolution which is still strongly governed by these ideas and principles today. The Age of Enlightenment was a European movement emphasizing reasoning and individualism ratherRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Age Of Enlightenment854 Words   |  4 PagesBorn of two fathers, the American Revolution and the age of enlightenment, the French revolution was primarily a social upheaval that conspired to overthrow religious and privileged classes. The French Revolution changed the degree to which the people were willing to suffer and sacrifice in order to achieve their war aims through democratizing the Army and creating the necessity of larger political alliances than ever before. Guibert wrote in his Essai: Imagine that there arose in Europe a peopleRead MoreLiberalism in French Revolution Through Enlightenment1593 Words   |  7 PagesTHE LIBERAL REVOLUTION -UNDER THE IDEA OF ENLIGHTENMENT Dare to know! Have courage to use your own reason!-Kant Contents ENLIGHTENMENT AS AN IDEA: 3 FRENCH SOCIETY: 3 THE LIBERAL REVOLUTION: 3 CRITICISM ON THE IDEA OF LIBERALISM: 4 CONCLUSION 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 6 ENLIGHTENMENT AS AN IDEA: â€Å"Enlightenment is mans emergence from his self-imposed nonage†¦ Sapere Aude! Dare to Know! Have the courage to use your own understanding is therefore the motto of the EnlightenmentRead MoreThe Enlightenment s Influence On The French Revolution885 Words   |  4 PagesMaheera Syed The Enlightenment’s Influence on the French Revolution No one could have imagined the impact that the Enlightenment would have and its long-lasting effect. The Enlightenment and its ideas became so widespread that they did not only affect France, but many other countries also. The French Revolution was directly inspired and influenced by the Enlightenment. Revolutionaries in France built their cause around the ideals of the Age of Reason. Reason, reform and modernity took hold mainlyRead MoreImpact Of Enlightenment Ideas On The French Revolution844 Words   |  4 Pages How Enlightenment Ideas Impacted the French Revolution? Towards the end of the 18th century, almost all of Europe had gone through a period called the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers, and philosophers, promoted reason and human freedom over tradition and religion. France had one of the bloodiest Enlightenment periods in history because they used the ideas of John Lockes Natural Rights, Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Social Contract, and Voltaire (Franà §ois-Marie Arouet) teaching of Freedom

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Evaluation of the Most Important Decade in American History Free Essays

This paper is going to be a step by step evaluation of arguably the most important decade in American History. The time period covered in this paper is 1789-1801. These are the years in which the Federalists had the most influence in the new government. We will write a custom essay sample on Evaluation of the Most Important Decade in American History or any similar topic only for you Order Now They accomplished an amazing amount in these 12 years. The Federalist Party was one of the first political organizations in the United States. The members of this party supported a strong central government, a large peacetime army and navy, and a stable financial system. Although the first president, George Washington, was not a Federalist, his Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, was the developer and leader of the Federalist party. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution so that the central government could become more powerful. Also Hamilton, along with the other party members, believed that commerce and manufacturing were more important than agriculture. During the first two years of the new federal government the biggest problem was that of raising money. At first the Congress adopted a small tariff on imports. This was a start but not nearly enough. The government needed this money to maintain its own existence and to be able to pay of the debt. The existence of the government was a necessity, but there was a lot of discussion as to whether the debt should be payed off. The mare magnitude of the debt seemed to compel some measure of avoidance. In 1789, the national debt totaled more than $50 million, $11,700,000 of which was owed to France and Spain and the private bankers of Netherlands, while $40 million was in the form of securities held by citizens of the United States. The interests owed to the bankers were being payed off by loans from the bankers themselves. The government didn†t even have enough money to pay the Barbary corsairs for release of captive sailors! When Congress couldn†t come up with a solution that was satisfactory, they turned to Alexander Hamilton with the dilemma. He soon proceeded to draw up a full report entitled â€Å"Report on Public Credit.† In this paper Hamilton proceeded to show that the only way for a new government to establish credit was to deal honestly with its creditors -for in many cases they would be the people to whom the government must look to for future loans. This policy received strong opposition from Madison and other soon to become Republicans (second political party in America). The federalists held strongly, but only with the passing of the Assumption Bill (movement of capital more toward the South) where they able to pass the bill. This achievement was significant, but lacked two things which would be necessary to carry it out. For one it lacked a circulating medium, and two it lacked a central bank. Hamilton then proposed a remedy. He wanted to establish a corporation that was to be called the Bank of the United States. This bank was to serve as the principle depository for government funds. It was also to serve as the issuer of bank notes. This was a loose interpretation of the constitution. Again Madison led the opposition to no avail. But Hamilton held strongly to his belief that even the most uncompromising opponent of the bank â€Å"would, in one month†s experience as head of that department of the treasury, be compelled to acknowledge that it is an absolutely indispensable engine in the management of the finances, and would quickly become a convert to its perfect constitutionality.† This plan favored the central government. The bank made little banks, who couldn†t compete, go out of business. The rich ended up being able to buy a part in the bank and so got richer, and the poor and middle class didn†t get the benefits. The central government was becoming self sufficient, and less dependent on the states. What Hamilton did is make the nation stronger in the eyes of other nations. This is a great accomplishment. If the Federalists (they didn†t call themselves that until 1792) weren†t in power the nation would have been weaker and more decentralized. There were three views on the French Revolution and the French-British war in 1793. Jefferson†s followers favored France. They wanted to abide by the treaty America signed with France in 1788. They thought it was the right thing to do. Hamilton†s followers favored Great Britain. They wanted to develop better relations with great Britain for economic reasons. They sought to break all the relations with the new French government and to ally America with England. The third view was the one taken by George Washington. He realized that a war with England on the side of the French would be suicidal, but at the same time he didn†t want America to be known as the nation that breaks treaties. George Washington proclaimed that America will be neutral. He forbade any American citizen from helping any warring nation. Without the Federalists there to oppose a war with England America might have been wiped out. The Federalists were looking out for the best interest of the country at the expense of another nation. George Washington who didn†t belong to any party decided not to follow either view. During John Adams† tenure as president the Federalists passed several laws which made them unpopular in the eyes of the American public. These laws made the people upset enough not to reelect most of the Federalists that were in Congress. This was the last term in which the federalists were influential. It is important to state these laws and why they passed them. The Federalists had become more favorable toward France and the Republicans started despising France, especially after the insulting X Y Z affair. Adams was favoring France as he tried to keep the nation out of war with France. He secured peace once Napoleon came into power in 1799. The resentment of the population toward France jeopardized this treaty. The Federalist majority in Congress decided to pass the Alien and sedition acts in order to weaken the supporters of war with France (mainly the Republicans). Adams himself was against these laws. These measures were hated. Some of the extreme measures taken to combat them were the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. These measures tried to say that the laws were unconstitutional. When the time of the next election came the people of the nation had a choice of either maintaining the ways of the Federalists or vote for Jefferson and the republicans. The people, who were mostly farmers at the time, saw the threat to the common man†s rights and so they voted Jefferson and other Republicans into office. This was probably the only thing that the federalist ever really messed up. They made the country strong but then went too far and people took them out of the national picture. The federalist party would never see such strong days again. Its power dwindled down slowly until the party vanished from the national picture in 1816. Although no longer influential in Congress the federalist remained in control in several states. Some states had federalists in office as far down as 1820. This wasn†t though what kept the federalist ideals in America. John Marshall, chief justice of supreme court, began his tenure in 1801. Justice Marshall was a steadfast Federalist. He maintained the Federalist ways long after the party seized to exist. Decision after decision chief Marshall declared the central government supreme to the state. He stretched the constitution far in seeing that the states yield rights to the federal government. He maintained this for 34 years, shaping the loose collection of states into a solid National Union. Another way that the Federalist ideals were maintained comes from their opponents. Upon gaining control of the Congress and Presidency the Democratic-Republicans maintained most of the programs set up by the Federalists. The alien and sedition laws were repealed and everyone arrested under them was let go, but other than that the central government maintained the control gained under the federalists, relinquishing little. The Republicans even strengthened the federal government on occasion. By buying Louisiana Jefferson extended the abilities of the central government. The years under George Washington and John Adams constitute a record of accomplishments not met since. The Federalists followed Hamilton†s counsel to ‘think continentally.† A federal judiciary was established, the taxing power was used, the national debt was handled, American credit was fixed, and territory was cleared of the British and Spanish populations. In foreign affairs America gained respect. Neutrality was maintained, at the price of the French alliance and concessions with Britain. The objective of the foreign policy was survival. The objective was met. The Federalist did a great job starting up the country. After all, many of the leaders including John Adams and George Washington thought that the Union would not last past their lifetimes. The â€Å"experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people†, as said President Washington, turned out very well. Just look at the power America has today. How to cite Evaluation of the Most Important Decade in American History, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Information Security Russian Hackers

Question: Describe about the Information Security for Russian Hackers. Answer: A.1) Problems statement The article is related to the story published in Data breach about The New York Times targeted by Russian Hackers. This newspaper mainly covers news stories about antagonized countries like Russia, China. Therefore it is very much obvious that spies of these countries will keep check on the reporters of this newspaper (New York Times Reportedly Targeted by Russian Hackers, 2016). China has warned Time about the consequences they would face due to revolutionary actions. According to their sayings they have hacked the network of Times through adding malware to their server. In this incident all the data related to corporate passwords and user details were hacked through this attack. Almost email and passwords of 53 employees were hacked during this attack. After this scenario Russian hacker are also willing to attack their system according to the spies of Times. They have targeted dox NYT employees. In early 2016 this paper published an article about a sophisticated laboratory run by R ussian that was aimed to conceal Russian athletes use of banned substances (New York Times Reportedly Targeted by Russian Hackers, 2016). According to the chief editor of Times it was clear that these threatening emails are not signs of attack these are just a mare trick to know about those contacts with which Times was communicating and what their conversation was about. These aspects made Times think about security of their reporter as the previous attack has stolen most of their important data regarding Russia and china. In spite of these incidents reporter were constant to their decisions to find fraudulent among Russian events and they want to recognize Russian spies. A.2) Process of attack The New York Times was challenged by attacks initiated by Russian hackers so as to take revenge of the reports they have published against Russia. At the first of stage of the attack Times was assuming that those massive attacks was operated by China as in 2015 they have intended another attack for hacking their entire server (New York Times Reportedly Targeted by Russian Hackers, 2016). After several research and investigation done on attacks recognized in 2016 it was clear that Russian spies were keeping check on the reporter of Times and they were not only controlling their system, email Ids but also noting their positions and keeping check on their contacts. During attacks in between 2015 and 2016 it was rated the massive one among all. Around 53 employee email IDs and passwords were hacked by Russian hackers (Allam et al., 2014). The problematic situation rose that the Russian hackers was trying to track the reporters of Times that results into the cyber- attack on 2016. Accordi ng to the research done on this cyber- attack, it was found that hackers were utilizing special tracking system for noticing the instant position of reporters. In addition to this, not only the reporters were tracked but also their contacts were getting tracked by hackers. This incident impacted massively on reporter of Times, as a result of which they could not stop writing against Russian spies and hackers (New York Times Reportedly Targeted by Russian Hackers, 2016). This step was intentionally taken to attack Russian hackers by the power of media. A.3) Possible Solutions There may be several resolution techniques possible against these massive breaches. These are mainly related to the information security system (Cardenas et al., 2012). Following are the concerned techniques to resolve these cyber breaches: Improvisation of information security techniques: Every organization and individual should obey these rules to protect their data from hackers (Layton, 2016). In case of individuals they should create their own security questions that may protect their system in a better way. As a result of which the hacker may not be allowed to guess or track those security questions set by users. In case of organizations or in case industry specific applications, there may platform independent cloud services that will prevent these systems from hacking (Gordon et al., 2015). Cloud services provide better security than any other platform in real time applications. Use of modernized tracking systems: Modernized tracking systems will help Times to prevent further cyber- attacks (Posey et al., 2014). At the first stage of attacks Times was not clear about hackers. There specific location was not clear to Times. Lack of security measure and conventional tracking system made Times inefficient while recognizing hackers position. Improvised motoring techniques will not only make them perfect in case of preventing hacking but also assures their consumers and employees that their data registered with their organization is safe (New York Times Reportedly Targeted by Russian Hackers, 2016). This aspect will improve brand value of Times. Part B: 2015 Anthem Medical Data Breach Case Title: Health Insurer Anthem Hit by hackers (Source: Yadron, 2015) Referred to appendix 2 B.1) Problems statement The article elaborated about the information security issue happened with giant healthcare Anthem. Almost 80 million consumers have lost their data due to this data theft. This was noted as the largest data breach in the year of 2015 (Rhee et al., 2012). Spokesperson from Anthem said that the data breach revealed most of the customer information to the hackers, such as: names, birthdates, account details, social security numbers and medical information of consumers. This incident not only impacted upon the consumers of Anthem but also make changes upon trustworthy relationship between consumers and Anthem. There were several consumers those were suffering from critical identity theft only due to lack of information security system in Anthem. In addition to this, modern approach of hacker for making Anthem fall against them makes the hacking possible (Siponen Vance, 2014). The hackers used almost all financial and other consumer related data for their own profit in the black market ac cording to the researches done this matter. According to investigators involved in case of Anthem hacking said that, this attack was sophisticated and very advanced in nature, due to that the weak technological support of Anthem could not get the hackers (Yadron, 2016). FBI was investigating in this case for further results and to find the concerned hackers involved in this massive attack. B.2) Impacts on victims According to investigators there are three actors in this incident who were affected due to this incident: Anthem, Consumer and Hackers. All of the positive and negative impacts are described as follows: Impact on consumers: Anthem hack made the world shocked with the severity of the damages occurred due to this. Almost 80 million consumers and 40 million company related data were stolen (Yadron, 2016). Anthem was challenged by data theft, impact of that only making the consumers restless as they were facing identity crisis (Van Deursen et al., 2013).This aspect impacted on the social world as well as in technological world. Almost 37.5 million payment details were stolen by this attack. Impact on Anthem: Anthem was suffering from critical situation as all of their customers have lost faith on them due to data theft (Teymourlouei Jackson, 2016). Most important fact was that the organization was losing their position in the marketplace due to severity of damages due to data theft. This incident not only reduced their fame in the marketplace but also affected their future aspect (Syed Dhillon, 2015). According tothe CEO of Anthem, Anthem has yet to demonstrate a path towards restoring this trust. Impact on Hackers: Among all the actors of this incident, hackers were only one who never suffered from any challenges due to this attack, in spite of that they were gained profit by stealing those data (Van Deursen et al., 2013). Financial information stolen in this incident was sold in the black market to maximum profit from that. In addition to this, investigators were expecting that there may be another reason or this incident: hackers may be intended to make Anthem feel their fall in healthcare industry. B.3) Process of attack According to Mr. Miller, a spokesperson from Anthem said that the information security department recognized the attack when in last week database queries were running automatically without the administrator password (Yadron, 2016). In addition to this, the system administrator did not enter his identifier code but the system was being operated by some other server. This incident recognized the attack but the hackers were using so much of advanced technologies that security team of the Anthem did not locate their position while considering their sever location (Vance et al., 2012). Information security team of Anthem once located the server position of hackers but it was just an illusion that makes them confused with their real position and hackers got sufficient time for being moved to another location before the Anthem security team could reach them. The total incident happened in a short period of time that security team could not recognize the actual perspective and location of t hem (Yadron, 2016). Anthem faced massive challenges due lack of security back up and contingency plan at that moment with them. This impacted on their concerned market position as well as to their consumers. B.4) Preventive measures There may be several aspects that may suggest the recovery of problems identified in the Anthem attack. Anthem took some steps to prevent these attacks as well protected their system from further massive attack s like this. These steps are discussed as follows: Password Management: Anthem had reset the entire user and employee password with a single that can only be accessed by the authority (Allam et al., 2014). This aspect reduced the chances of further hacking over their network. Only one pass word was there by which all data would be accessible through Anthem server. Implement Server Based Platform: Anthem introduced a new web server based platform that was helping them to observe him problems their consumers were facing (Armerding, 2012). This step made their future risks reduced as they would be now getting all the tracking details from user server. Implement Firewall Method: They built a firewall with proper security method for their open server that will track the harmful operations that may harm their network, which helps them to recognize the hacking possibilities. References Allam, S., Flowerday, S. V., Flowerday, E. (2014). Smartphone information security awareness: A victim of operational pressures.Computers Security,42, 56-65. Armerding, T. (2012). The 15 worst data security breaches of the 21st Century.COS Security and Risk. Cardenas, J., Coronado, A., Donald, A., Parra, F., Mahmood, M. A. (2012). The economic impact of security breaches on publicly traded corporations: an empirical investigation. Gordon, L. A., Loeb, M. P., Lucyshyn, W., Zhou, L. (2015). The impact of information sharing on cybersecurity underinvestment: a real options perspective.Journal of Accounting and Public Policy,34(5), 509-519. Layton, T. P. (2016).Information Security: Design, implementation, measurement, and compliance. CRC Press. New York Times Reportedly Targeted by Russian Hackers. (2016) Retrieved 25 August 2016, from Posey, C., Roberts, T. L., Lowry, P. B., Hightower, R. T. (2014).Bridging the divide: a qualitative comparison of information security thought patterns between information security professionals and ordinary organizational insiders.Information management,51(5), 551-567. Rhee, H. S., Ryu, Y. U., Kim, C. T. (2012).Unrealistic optimism on information security management.computers security,31(2), 221-232. Siponen, M., Vance, A. (2014). Guidelines for improving the contextual relevance of field surveys: the case of information security policy violations.European Journal of Information Systems,23(3), 289-305. Syed, R., Dhillon, G. (2015). Dynamics of Data Breaches in Online Social Networks: Understanding Threats to Organizational Information Security Reputation. Teymourlouei, H., Jackson, L. (2016, January).Detecting and Preventing Information Security Breaches.InProceedings of the International Conference on Security and Management (SAM)(p. 304). The Steering Committee of The World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing (WorldComp). Van Deursen, N., Buchanan, W. J., Duff, A. (2013).Monitoring information security risks within health care.computers security,37, 31-45. Vance, A., Siponen, M., Pahnila, S. (2012). Motivating IS security compliance: insights from habit and protection motivation theory.Information Management,49(3), 190-198. Yadron, A., (2016).Health Insurer Anthem Hit by Hackers. [online] WSJ. Available at: [Accessed 25 Aug. 2016].